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Improvements in industrial processes – 40%        Bioenergy – Industries like aviation, marine transport,
            emission from metals, mining, chemical, and other   and cement manufacturing are challenging to
            processes need to be reduced to 2/3rd of 2016     decarbonise through electrification or hydrogen.
            levels by 2050. This can be achieved by adopting   In these sectors, fossil fuels can be replaced with
            a circular economy, improving efficiency and      bioenergy using a sustainable conversion of biomass or
            optimising operations.                            waste to energy and feedstock, contributing 3% of total
                                                              CO2 reduction by 2050. Figure 9 shows the growth of
            Electrifying industrial processes – the most      bioenergy in the mix.
            considerable emission reduction will come from the
            electrification of industrial heat process that can   Top uses of bioenergy by 2050, % of each
            reduce 65% of the fossil fuel caused CO2 emissions.   industry's 2016 CO emissions reduced via
            This is mostly applicable for low and medium                          2
            temperature-based industries like construction,   bioenergy
            food, textiles, and manufacturing.

                                                              Ethylene                                     23%
        Decarbonisation of Power and Fuel:
                                                              Aviation                                21%
        Renewables – Approximately two-thirds of the current
        global power generation is from fossil fuel sources of   Ammonia                     15%
        coal and natural gas, generating 40% of the total CO2
        emissions. Increase in wind power to five times and   Marine                        15%
        solar power to eight times the current levels would be   transport
        required to achieve decarbonisation targets by 2030.  Iron & Steel              12%

        Hydrogen – Electrification alone may prove inadequate     Cement          8%
        for decarbonising industries like steel making. These
        industries would require the use of low-carbon        Global        3%
        hydrogen generated from renewable power sources       average
        (“green” hydrogen) or by using natural gas with
        carbon capture (“blue” hydrogen). Figure 8 shows the             Fig. 9: Demand growth for Bioenergy
        increasing role of hydrogen.
                                                              The overall picture of energy transition is shown in
        Final global demand for hydrogen on                   Figure 10. The overall consumption increases two-fold
          1.50C pathway, exajoules                            by 2050, mostly through electrification and green
                                                              hydrogen in the mix. Renewables are projected to
                                                              become cheaper than fossil fuel-powered plants in the
                                                              coming decade.
                                   Power generation
                                   and buffering

                                   Transportation             Power generation mix,
            >7x           28       (including synfuels)       thousand TWh

                          10       Industry (including
                                   fuel and feedstock)
                           8       Buildings

              8            8       Current uses

           2016        2050                                     Other  Solar  Onshore wind  Offshore wind

                                                                Hydro  Nuclear  Oil  Gas  Coal

                     Fig. 8: Hydrogen demand growth                   Fig. 10: Change in the power generation Mix   2

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