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                 orld over, we are passing through a significant   wind and geothermal. We are now finding means of
                 energy transition and are witnessing the     storage, transmission and distribution of the energy
        Windustrial revolution like never before.             generated from these sources to meet similar metrics
        Sustainability, Green Initiatives and environmentally   and continuity as those of high energy density sources.
        conscious approach is the key to a circular economy.   However, this rule’s exception is nuclear energy -
        The current pandemic has been a catalyst to           both fusion and fission, which have too high energy
        accelerating these areas for many reasons; from the   densities.
        environment to social to geopolitical to the simple
        realisation, nature needs more respect. The underlying   Though it is essential to find solutions concerning the
        theme in the current transition period is a better    ‘Energy Density and Continuity’ challenge, it is also
        appreciation of our future generation’s responsibility   equally imperative to think about the overall energy
        and care towards the planet and its resources.        footprint regarding the materials used in mitigating
                                                              the challenges. While Hydrogen has one of the
        While the economic cycles are becoming shorter,       highest energy densities in the order of 120-150 GJ/
        the basic demands of developed-developing nations     tonne (Nuclear energy is the exception as it has many
        are normalising, and the gap is diminishing. The so-  times higher energy density than Hydrogen), its low
        called equalisation is also exponentially increasing the   volumetric density is a matter of concern which results
        negative impact of industrial growth and its future   in a low energy per unit volume, hence Hydrogen
        sustainability.                                       storage is an issue. Similarly, the solar photovoltaic
                                                              cells are an attractive source for renewable power
        Revisit Lifecycle Energy Demand:                      generation, but it requires a large land quantum. Same

                                                              is also applicable for bio-fuels initiating concerns over
        Energy and resources drive growth. The demand for     food vs fuel.
        resources is also undergoing a shift, almost as if new
        elements from the periodic table are now needed,      It is essential to evaluate the energy requirements of
        which were rare and reserved for exotic use only a    the complete product lifecycle. For example, Aluminium
        few decades ago. Nevertheless, the most significant   is a lighter material than steel and, hence, possibly
        change is being felt on the energy mix regarding its   better for automotive applications, but can this reason
        quantity and quality. It is quite strange that while the   be considered a green and sustainable solution? The
        world has utilised the high energy density sources    energy required to produce a tonne of Aluminium
        such as coal and oil, we are now compelled to seek    (approx. 300 GJ/ton) is almost six times compared to
        low energy and intermittent energy sources like solar,

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