Energy Transition Outlook

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Global energy demand grew at a compounded annual growth rate of 3% p.a. between 1950 to 2000 mostly spurred by growth in the Western world.

The growth rate continued at 2% between 2000 to 2015 on the backdrop of accelerated industrialisation in China. However, during this time, concerns over climate change and adverse impacts due to rising Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions started to alter the energy vision, leading to the birth of energy transition.

The Emission Scenario

The energy sector is the most significant contributor to human activity related GHG emissions at 73% of 49.4 Gt CO2e as of 2016 data.

Path to Decarbonisation

To achieve deep decarbonisation of the global economy, it has become imperative to look for alternate energy sources, transitioning to greener sources.

The New Energy Scenario

Fossil fuels dominate the energy system, and these are also a significant contributor to carbon emissions.

The Energy Transition Path

There are three pillars to energy transition – generation, storage and efficiency; the related technologies converge to provide an integrated solution.

Decarbonisation of Power and Fuel

Approximately two-thirds of the current global power generation is from fossil fuel sources of coal and natural gas, generating 40% of the total CO2 emissions.

Evaluating New Technologies for Energy Transition

International Energy Agency (IEA)9 has developed different methods and tools to assess the various technologies’ effectiveness for an energy transition based on scenario analysis.

Impact of COVID19 on Energy Transition

The COVID19 crisis has overshadowed the world economy in much of 2020 and continues into 2021, showing an appreciable downfall in energy demand curves.

Concluding
Remarks

In response to the Paris 2015 agreement, rapid changes are being witnessed globally, especially the way energy is used.

Industrial Energy Transitions

World over, we are passing through a significant energy transition and are witnessing the industrial revolution like never before. Sustainability, Green Initiatives and environmentally conscious approach is the key to a circular economy.

Changes are indeed the most exciting playgrounds for visionaries, scientists, engineers and pioneers – but they take time; for example, it took the wood to Coal to Oil-based, and then gas energy sources almost 80-100 years each time to gain a 50% mix. Solar/wind/nuclear are much recent and still in single or lower double % regarding overall energy composition.

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Role Of Renewables In Energy Transition

The World Economic Forum defines an effective energy transition as “a timely transition towards a more inclusive, sustainable, affordable and secure energy system that provides solutions to global energy-related challenges, while creating value for business and society, without compromising the balance of the energy triangle”1

Power Generation

Fossil fuels continue to negatively impact air, soil and water pollution and contribute to direct CO2 emissions. Hence, renewable energy forms the critical component of a low carbon economy both in the generation and in the end-use application.

Transportation

Light vehicles emit greenhouse gases and also cause air pollution, smog and other health-related issues. Though with improved emission norms, it has reduced; still, there is much ground to be covered.

Impact On Thermal Power Plant Due To Renewable Penetration & Way Forward

The energy requirements and growth of the civilisation flourished through fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution era reaching its pinnacle at the end of the 20th century. Subsequently, fossil fuel usage in power generation started declining and expected to settle almost at the installed capacity levels globally.

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Energy Transition & Clean Technology In Metals: Iron & Steel

The world is on a warming pathway of 2.8-3˚C, and the Paris accord, 2015 requires all nations to act aggressively to restrict temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial levels within this century.

In total, 70% of the world steel is made BF-BOF route, where iron ore is reduced in Blast Furnace and then converted into steel in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF).
The following section discusses the available technologies wherein Technical systems are either complete & qualified or very promising to have a significant impact in future.
In addition to the above shift in energy systems, carbon dioxide capture with permanent sequestration (CCS) / viable utilisation (CCU) prepares to play a significant role in defining the future energy systems.
Current Indian Govt. policies and programmes that could enable progress towards low emission steel making are given below.
Metallurgical industries in General and Iron & Steel Industry in particular, are energy-intensive and generate a significant amount of Green House Gas.
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Electricity Distribution System In India

The Indian power sector is segmented mainly into Generation, Transmission, and Distribution sectors. The Distribution sector involves Distribution Companies (Discoms) responsible for the supply of electricity to the Domestic, Industrial, Commercial and Agriculture Consumers. In Power Sector, the distribution system is a weak link due to high Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C) losses, erroneous metering, poor revenue realisation, and inadequate infrastructure maintenance.

Focused Areas of Distribution System

01 Due Diligence

  • Privatisation of DISCOM
  • Firming Management level Investment decision by developing Utility level SWOT analysis

02 AT&C Loss Minimisation

  • Various Government initiatives are taken to improve the health of Distribution system
  • Most of the Indian utilities have high AT&C losses

03 Grid Automation

  • Improved system performance
  • Reduced dependence on HR

04 Smart Grids / Smart Meters

  • Various Government initiatives including smart cities
  • Moving towards Digitalisation

05 BESS

  • Managing a renewable mix
  • Reducing Grid Penalties and enabling flexible operation

Nuclear Power - Fuelling A Powerful India

Building “Brand India” on a global stage

Nuclear power generation plays a vital role in India’s energy security and energy transition aspirations. India started its Nuclear energy program soon after independence by setting up the Indian Atomic Energy Commission in 1948 (Today’s Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)), pursuing relentlessly to empower India with high technology and advanced scientific research in the nuclear field. DAE has an ambitious plan, which puts India on a high pedestal in the global arena.

Nuclear Power Plants - Engineering Capability

Special Capabilities

1. Integrated 3D/4D Engineering 2. Fire Hazard Anaysis 3. Plant Layout Studies 4. Advance Analysis (FEA/CFD/Blast Analysis)
5. Special component Design (Fuelling machine) 6. Industrial Automation & Remote Handling

Fig. 1: TCE’s Nuclear Engineering Capability

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